Cancer Cell Markers

Cancer cell markers may be used to screen for presence of cancer, help determine the type of cancer and characteristics about it’s behavior.   Some markers, called transcription factors, are proteins that turn specific genes “on” or “off” by binding to nearby sections of DNA.

BCR-ABL – gene mutation found in most patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and in some patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

c-MET – activates a wide range of different cellular signaling pathways, including those involved in proliferation, motility, migration and invasion

CD15 -hematologic origin cell marker, lymphocyte marker

CD19 – with CD45 positive hematologic origin cell marker; with CD45 negative lung / neuroedocrine tumor marker

CD30 – hematologic origin cell marker

CD31 – endothelial cell membrane antigen

CD34 – with CD45 positive hematologic origin cell marker; with CD45 negative epithelioid sarcoma marker

CD44 – tumor stem cell marker

CD45 – hematologic origin cell marker, present on cell membranes of lymphocytes, monocytes and blast cells except erythropoietic cells, plasma cells and mature megakaryocytes

CD63 – melanoma cell marker

CD99 – sarcoma marker

CD133 – tumor stem cell marker, associated with progenitor/stem cells, tumor, regeneration, differentiation, and metabolism – functions in cell growth, development and tumor biology

EpCam – epithelial cell adhesion molecule, important role in the prevention of cell-cell adhesion, cell signalling, migration, proliferation and differentiation

MUC-1 – breast cancer cell marker

Nanog – tumor stem cell marker, key regulator of embryonic development and cellular reprogramming, encourages tumor growth

OKT-4 – tumor stem cell marker, associated with self-renewal and differentiation-related factors in cancer stem cells

panCK – pancytokeratin, tumor stem cell marker showing cancer from epithelial cell origin, important for intracellular transport and physical cell properties

PSMA – prostate-specific membrane antigen, expressed in all types of prostate tissue and increased in prostate cancer tissue – also expressed in other cancers (conventional renal cell, transitional cell of the bladder, testicular-embryonal, neuroendocrine, colon, and breast)

PSA – prostate specific antigen, increased in prostate cancer tissue

Sox-2 – tumor stem cell marker, essential for maintaining self-renewal of stem cells, but over-expression promotes tumor growth

VHL mut – renal carcinoma marker

 

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